libev使用方法

1. libev简介

libev是个高性能跨平台的事件驱动框架,支持io事件,超时事件,子进程状态改变通知,信号通知,文件状态改变通知,还能用来实现wait/notify机制。libev对每种监听事件都用一个ev_type类型的数据结构表示,如ev_io, ev_timer, ev_child, ev_async分别用来表示文件监听器, timeout监听器, 子进程状态监听器, 同步事件监听器.

libev支持优先级, libev一次loop收集的事件按优先级先排序, 优先级高的事件回调先执行, 优先级低的后执行, 相同优先级则按事件到达顺序执行. libev优先级从[-2, 2], 默认优先级为0,libev注册watcher的流程如下:

static void type_cb(EV_P_ ev_type *watcher, int revents)
{
	// callback
}

static void ev_test()
{
#ifdef EV_MULTIPLICITY
	struct ev_loop *loop;
#else
	int loop;
#endif
	ev_type *watcher;

	loop = ev_default_loop(0);
	watcher = (ev_type *)calloc(1, sizeof(*watcher));
	assert(loop && watcher);

	ev_type_init(watcher, type_cb, ...);
	ev_start(EV_A_ watcher);

	ev_run(EV_A_ 0);

	/* 资源回收 */
	ev_loop_destroy(EV_A);
	free(watcher);
}

libev注册watcher可以分为四个步骤:

  1. 创建一个loop和watcher
  2. 初始化watcher,主要设置callback函数和定义watcher的参数
  3. 激活watcher
  4. 启动libev,开始loop收集事件

2. ev_io

libev内部使用后端select, poll, epoll(linux专有), kqueue(drawin), port(solaris10)实现io事件监听, 用户可以指定操作系统支持的后端或者由libev自动选择使用哪个后端,如linux平台上用户可以强制指定libev使用select作为后端。libev支持单例模式和多例模式, 假设我们链接的是多例模式的libev库, 且watcher使用默认优先级0.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#include <ev.h>

static void io_cb(struct ev_loop *loop, ev_io *watcher, int revents)
{
	char buf[1024] = {0};

	/* 参数watcher即注册时的watcher */
	read(watcher->fd, buf, sizeof(buf) - 1);
	fprintf(stdout, "%s\n", buf);

	ev_break(loop, EVBREAK_ALL);
}

static void io_test()
{
	struct ev_loop *loop;
	ev_io *io_watcher;

	/* 指定libev使用epoll机制,关闭环境变量对libev影响 */
	loop = ev_default_loop(EVFLAG_NOENV | EVBACKEND_EPOLL);
	io_watcher = (ev_io *)calloc(1, sizeof(*io_watcher));
	assert(("can not alloc memory", loop && io_watcher));

	/* 设置监听标准输入的可读事件和回调函数 */
	ev_io_init(io_watcher, io_cb, STDIN_FILENO, EV_READ);
	ev_io_start(loop, io_watcher);

	/* libev开启loop */
	ev_run(loop, 0);

	/* 资源回收 */
	ev_loop_destroy(loop);
	free(io_watcher);
}

int main(void)
{
	io_test();

	return 0;
}

ev_io_init(ev, cb, fd, event)

  • ev:ev_io
  • cb: 回调函数
  • fd:socket,pipe等句柄
  • event:事件类型(EV_READ/EV_WRITE)

Makefile

target := main
CC := clang
CFLAGS += -g -Wall -fPIC
LDFLAGS += -lev

src += \
	main.c
obj := $(patsubst %.c, %.o, $(src))

$(target):$(obj)
	$(CC) -o $@ $^ $(LDFLAGS)

%.o:%.c
	$(CC) -o $@ -c $< $(CFLAGS)

.PHONY:clean

clean:
	@rm -rf $(target) *.o

libev内部使用一个大的循环来收集各种watcher注册的事件,如果没有注册ev_timer和ev_periodic,则libev内部使用的后端采用59.743s作为超时事件,如果select作为后端,则select的超时设置为59.743s,这样可以降低cpu占用率,对一个fd可以注册的watcher数量不受限(或者说只受内存限制),比如可以对标准输入的可读事件注册100个watcher,当有用户输入时所有100个watcher的回调都能执行(当然回调中还是只有一个read操作成功)。

3. ev_timer

ev_timer可以用来实现定时器, ev_timer不受墙上时间影响,如设置一个1小时定时器,把当前系统时间调快1小时不能让定时器立刻超时,超时依旧发生在1小时后,如下是一个简单的例子:

static void timer_cb(struct ev_loop *loop, ev_timer *w, int revents)
{
	fprintf(stdout, "%fs timeout\n", w->repeat);
	ev_break(loop, EVBREAK_ALL);
}

static void timer_test()
{
	struct ev_loop *loop;
	ev_timer *timer_watcher;

	loop = ev_default_loop(EVFLAG_NOENV);
	timer_watcher = calloc(1, sizeof(*timer_watcher));
	assert(("can not alloc memory", loop && timer_watcher));

	ev_timer_init(timer_watcher, timer_cb, 0., 3600.);
	ev_timer_start(loop, timer_watcher);

	ev_run(loop, 0);

	ev_loop_destroy(loop);
	free(timer_watcher);
}

ev_timer_init(ev, cb, ofs, iva)

  • ev: ev_timer
  • cb: 回调函数
  • ofs,iva: 超时事件为(now + ofs + ival * N), now为当前时间,N为正整数

如果ival参数为0,则timer是一次性的定时器,超时后libev自动stop timer
可以在回调中重新设置timer超时,并重新启动timer。

static void timer_cb(struct ev_loop *loop, ev_timer *watcher, int revents)
{
	fprintf(stdout, "%fs timeout\n", watcher->repeat);
	watcher->repeat += 5.;
	ev_timer_again(loop, watcher);
}

上面介绍了libev是在一个大的循环中监听所有watcher的事件,只有ev_io类型的watcher时,libev后端以59.743s作为超时(如select超时),这时用户注册一个3s的timer,那么libev会不会因为后端超时太长导致定时器检测非常不准呢?答案是不会,libev保证后端超时时间不大于定时器超时时间,注册一个3s timer,则libev自动调整到3s以内loop一次,这样保证timer超时能及时被检测到,同时也带来更高的cpu占用率。

4. ev_periodic

ev_timer做为定时器很方便,但是对应指定到某时刻发生超时就比较困难,比如每天00:00:00触发超时,每天08:00开灯,18:00关灯等等,ev_periodic可以很好的应付这种场景,ev_periodic基于墙上时间,所以受墙上时间影响,如注册1小时后超时的ev_peroidic,同时系统时间调快1小时,ev_periodic立马能超时。如下例子指定每天凌晨发生超时:

static void periodic_cb(struct ev_loop *loop, ev_periodic *watcher, int revents)
{
	fprintf(stdout, "00:00:00 now, time to sleep");
}

ev_tstamp my_schedule(ev_periodic *watcher, ev_tstamp now)
{
	time_t cur;
	struct tm tm;

	time(&cur);
	localtime_r(&cur, &tm);

	tm.tm_wday += 1;
	tm.tm_hour = 0;
	tm.tm_sec = 0;
	tm.tm_min = 0;
	tm.tm_mon -= 1;
	tm.tm_year -= 1900;

	return mktime(&tm);
}

static void periodic_test()
{
	struct ev_loop *loop;
	ev_periodic *periodic_watcher;

	loop = ev_default_loop(0);
	periodic_watcher = (ev_periodic *)calloc(1, sizeof(*periodic_watcher));
	assert(("can not alloc memory", loop && periodic_watcher));

	ev_periodic_init(periodic_watcher, periodic_cb, 0, 0, my_schedule);
	ev_periodic_start(loop, periodic_watcher);

	ev_run(loop, 0);

	ev_loop_destroy(loop);
	free(periodic_watcher);
}

ev_periodic_init(ev, cb, ofs, ival,schedule)

  • ev:ev_periodic
  • cb:回调函数
  • ofs,ival:ofs + ceil((now – ofs) / ival) * ival // now表示当前时间戳
  • schedule:用户自定义函数,该函数返回下一次ev_periodic超时时间
  1. 如果schedule不为空,则ev_periodic超时时间为:ofs + ceil((now – ofs) / ival) * ival,表示从当前时间开始,经过ofs时间后所有能被ival整数的点,注册ev_periodic,ifs = 1, ival = 10, 当前时间为1604649458(2020-10-615:57:38),则ev_periodic第一次经过2s就发生超时了。
  2. 如果schedule存在,则ofs,ival参数被忽略,ev_periodic超时时间由schedule()返回值指定

5. ev_child

libev支持监听子进程状态变化, 如子进程退出, 内部用waitpid去实现, libev限制只能用default loop去监听子进程状态变化, 如果以ev_loop_new()创建的loop则不行, 通过ev_default_loop()创建default loop时libev内部自动注册了SIGCHILD信号处理函数, 需要在自己代码处理SIGCHILD的话, 可以在ev_default_loop()之后注册SIGCHIL处理以覆盖libev中的默认处理, 如下是一个简单的例子:

static void child_cb(struct ev_loop *loop, ev_child *watcher, int revents)
{
	fprintf(stdout, "pid:%d exit, status:%d\n", watcher->rpid, watcher->rstatus);	
}

static void child_test()
{
	pid_t pid;
	struct ev_loop *loop;
	ev_child *child_watcher;

	switch (pid = fork()) {
		case 0:
			sleep(5);
			fprintf(stdout, "child_pid:%d\n", getpid());
			exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
		default:
			{
				loop = ev_default_loop(0);
				child_watcher = (ev_child*)calloc(1, sizeof(*child_watcher));
				assert(("can not alloc memory", loop && child_watcher));

				ev_child_init(child_watcher, child_cb, 0, 1);
				ev_child_start(loop, child_watcher);

				ev_run(loop, 0);

				/* 资源回收 */
				ev_loop_destroy(loop);
				free(child_watcher);
			}
	}
}

ev_child_init(ev, cb, pid, trace)

  • ev:ev_child
  • cb:回调函数
  • pid:子进程pid
  • trace:设置为1
    个人觉得libev的default loop默认注册SIGCHILD处理并不好,最好还是在自己代码中做处理。

6. ev_async

可以通过libev的async来实现wait/notify机制, 用户注册多个ev_async监听器, 在其他地方调用ev_async_send()即可触发ev_async注册的回调, libev内部用eventfd(linux平台)和pipe(win32)实现, 个人觉得linux平台上直接用eventfd更完美, 如下是简单例子.

static void *routine(void *args)
{
	static size_t count = 0;
	ev_async *watcher = (ev_async *)args;
	struct ev_loop *loop = (struct ev_loop *)watcher->data;

	while (count++ < 10) {
		ev_async_send(loop, watcher);
		sleep(1);
	}

	return NULL;
}

static void async_cb(struct ev_loop *loop, ev_async *watcher, int revents)
{
	fprintf(stdout, "get the order, start move...\n");
}

static void async_test()
{
	pthread_t pid;
	struct ev_loop *loop;
	ev_async *async_watcher;

	loop = ev_default_loop(0);
	async_watcher = (ev_async *)calloc(1, sizeof(*async_watcher));
	assert(("can not alloc memory", loop && async_watcher));

	ev_async_init(async_watcher, async_cb);
	ev_async_start(loop, async_watcher);

	async_watcher->data = loop;
	pthread_create(&pid, NULL, routine, async_watcher);

	ev_run(loop, 0);

	/* 资源回收 */
	ev_loop_destroy(loop);
	free(async_watcher);
}

ev_async_init(ev,cb)

  • ev:ev_async
  • cb:回调函数

7. ev_prepare/ev_idle

libev每次loop收集各种事件之前都会先调用ev_prepare的回调函数(如果有的话), 如果存在比ev_idle优先级更高的监听有事件待处理, 则ev_idle的事件不会处理, 如存在优先级1,2的事件待处理, 则优先级为1的ev_idle的事件不会被处理, 只有在优先级1,2的所有事件都处理完后才会把ev_idle的事件添加到带处理的事件队列中去.

static void idle_cb(struct ev_loop *loop, ev_idle *watcher, int revents)
{
	fprintf(stdout, "no one has higher priority than me now\n");
	ev_idle_stop(loop, watcher);
}

static void prepare_cb(struct ev_loop *loop, ev_prepare *watcher, int revents)
{
	fprintf(stdout, "prepare_cb\n");
}

static void ev_test()
{
	struct ev_loop *loop;
	ev_io *io_watcher;
	ev_idle *idle_watcher;
	ev_prepare *prepare_watcher;

	loop = ev_default_loop(0);
	prepare_watcher = (ev_prepare *)calloc(1, sizeof(*prepare_watcher));
	idle_watcher = (ev_idle *)calloc(1, sizeof(*idle_watcher));
	io_watcher = (ev_io *)calloc(1, sizeof(*io_watcher));
	assert(("can not alloc memory", loop && prepare_watcher && io_watcher && idle_watcher));

	ev_io_init(io_watcher, io_cb, STDIN_FILENO, EV_READ);
	ev_prepare_init(prepare_watcher, prepare_cb);
	ev_idle_init(idle_watcher, idle_cb);

	ev_prepare_start(loop, prepare_watcher);
	ev_io_start(loop, io_watcher);
	ev_idle_start(loop, idle_watcher);

	ev_run(loop, 0);

	ev_loop_destroy(loop);
	free(io_watcher);
	free(idle_watcher);
	free(prepare_watcher);
}

ev_prepare(ev, cb)/ev_idle(ev, cb)

  • ev:ev_prepare/ev_idle
  • cb:回调函数

可以看到每次输入前都先有ev_prepare的回调,只有不存在优先级别idle高的时间待处理时才会处理idle的回调。

8. ev_stat

不建议使用,还不如用个定时器自己去检测文件是否改动

9. ev_fork

注册ev_fork,在libev自动检测到fork调用(开启了EVFLAG_FORKCHECK),或者用户调用ev_loop_fork()通知libev有fork调用时ev_fork回调被触发

10. ev_cleanup

注册ev_cleanup的watcher,在libev销毁时调用ev_cleanup的回调,用来做一些清理工作

11. 简单回显服务器

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <strings.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>

#include <ev.h>

/* client number limitation */
#define MAX_CLIENTS 1000

/* message length limitation */
#define MAX_MESSAGE_LEN (256)

#define err_message(msg) \
	do {perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE);} while(0)

/* record the number of clients */
static int client_number;

static int create_serverfd(char const *addr, uint16_t u16port)
{
	int fd;
	struct sockaddr_in server;

	fd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
	if (fd < 0) err_message("socket err\n");

	server.sin_family = AF_INET;
	server.sin_port = htons(u16port);
	inet_pton(AF_INET, addr, &server.sin_addr);

	if (bind(fd, (struct sockaddr *)&server, sizeof(server)) < 0) err_message("bind err\n");

	if (listen(fd, 10) < 0) err_message("listen err\n");

	return fd;
}

static void read_cb(EV_P_ ev_io *watcher, int revents)
{
	ssize_t ret;
	char buf[MAX_MESSAGE_LEN] = {0};

	ret = recv(watcher->fd, buf, sizeof(buf) - 1, MSG_DONTWAIT);	
	if (ret > 0) {
		write(watcher->fd, buf, ret);

	} else if ((ret < 0) && (errno == EAGAIN || errno == EWOULDBLOCK)) {
		return;

	} else {
		fprintf(stdout, "client closed (fd=%d)\n", watcher->fd);
		--client_number;
		ev_io_stop(EV_A_ watcher);
		close(watcher->fd);
		free(watcher);
	}
}

static void accept_cb(EV_P_ ev_io *watcher, int revents)
{
	int connfd;
	ev_io *client;

	connfd = accept(watcher->fd, NULL, NULL);
	if (connfd > 0) {
		if (++client_number > MAX_CLIENTS) {
			close(watcher->fd);

		} else {
			client = calloc(1, sizeof(*client));
			ev_io_init(client, read_cb, connfd, EV_READ);
			ev_io_start(EV_A_ client);
		}

	} else if ((connfd < 0) && (errno == EAGAIN || errno == EWOULDBLOCK)) {
		return;

	} else {
		close(watcher->fd);
		ev_break(EV_A_ EVBREAK_ALL);
		/* this will lead main to exit, no need to free watchers of clients */
	}
}

static void start_server(char const *addr, uint16_t u16port)
{
	int fd;
#ifdef EV_MULTIPLICITY
	struct ev_loop *loop;
#else
	int loop;
#endif
	ev_io *watcher;

	fd = create_serverfd(addr, u16port);
	loop = ev_default_loop(EVFLAG_NOENV);
	watcher = calloc(1, sizeof(*watcher));
	assert(("can not alloc memory\n", loop && watcher));

	/* set nonblock flag */
	fcntl(fd, F_SETFL, fcntl(fd, F_GETFL, 0) | O_NONBLOCK);

	ev_io_init(watcher, accept_cb, fd, EV_READ);
	ev_io_start(EV_A_ watcher);
	ev_run(EV_A_ 0);

	ev_loop_destroy(EV_A);
	free(watcher);
}

static void signal_handler(int signo)
{
	switch (signo) {
		case SIGPIPE:
			break;
		default:
			// unreachable
			break;
	}
}

int main(void)
{
	signal(SIGPIPE, signal_handler);
	start_server("127.0.0.1", 10009);

	return 0;
}

客户端:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <strings.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>

#include <pthread.h>

#define err_message(msg) \
	do {perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE);} while(0)

static int create_clientfd(char const *addr, uint16_t u16port)
{
	int fd;
	struct sockaddr_in server;

	fd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
	if (fd < 0) err_message("socket err\n");

	server.sin_family = AF_INET;
	server.sin_port = htons(u16port);
	inet_pton(AF_INET, addr, &server.sin_addr);

	if (connect(fd, (struct sockaddr *)&server, sizeof(server)) < 0) perror("connect err\n");

	return fd;
}

static void *routine(void *args)
{
	int fd;
	char buf[128];

	fd = create_clientfd("127.0.0.1", 10009);

	for (; ;) {
		write(fd, "Hello", strlen("hello"));

		memset(buf, '\0', sizeof(buf));
		read(fd, buf, sizeof(buf) - 1);
		fprintf(stdout, "pthreadid:%ld %s\n", pthread_self(), buf);
		usleep(100 * 1000);
	}
}

int main(void)
{
	pthread_t pids[4];

	for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(pids)/sizeof(pthread_t); ++i) {
		pthread_create(pids + i, NULL, routine, 0);
	}

	for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(pids)/sizeof(pthread_t); ++i) {
		pthread_join(pids[i], 0);
	}

	return 0;
}

Makefile

all:server client

server_src += \
	server.c

server_obj := $(patsubst %.c, %.o, $(server_src))

client_src += \
	client.c

client_obj:= $(patsubst %.c, %.o, $(client_src))

CC := clang

CFLAGS += -Wall -fPIC

server:$(server_obj)
	$(CC) -o $@ $^ -lev
%.o:%.c
	$(CC) -o $@ -c $< $(CFLAGS)

client:$(client_obj)
	$(CC) -o $@ $^ -lpthread
%.o:%.c
	$(CC) -o $@ -c $< $(CFLAGS)

.PHONY:clean all

clean:
	@rm -rf server client *.o

原创文章,作者:迷途资源,如若转载,请注明出处:https://www.mipng.com/1363.html

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